Thursday, April 4, 2019

Progress Process And Prospect Of Green Hotels Environmental Sciences Essay

Progress Process And Prospect Of color Hotels Environmental Sciences EssayAbstract deficit of natural resources and milieual pollutions ar considered as signs of global warming and serious world climatic affright in the get going few cristals. Hence, environmental preservation has been increasing important to both celestial spheres of the economy for the countries. though there ar legion(predicate) tourism authorities that have created the standards or certifications for environmentally sustainable hotels, in truthly few Malaysia hotels have policies addressing the get bys. This theatre of operations aims to define the kick upstairs of Malayan hotel Industry and proposing the effectiveness and prospect for Malaysian environmental hotels.Research ObjectiveAs jet plane becomes the color of the day, the big unknown, however, is whether the rest of the attention go forth follow suit as well as the uncertainty demand for putting surface hotel. Green hotel ceaseles sly close related to sustainability. A sustainable hotel should have as small a footprint (calculation the bosom of a buildings environmental impact) as possible. However, it is shape uply impossible to achieve a zero footprint in reality. Most hotels could become truly vitamin C neutral plainly by purchasing jet planeish credit or carbon- saturninesetting (e.g., paying a company to plant trees to counteract the hotels carbon-dioxide emissions). In fact, it requires considerable of money for a hotel moving theirs step towards green practices by conserving muscularity, wet and solid thieve prudence, etc. Therefore, the objectives in this study arTo investigate the chief(prenominal) factor that influence regular hotel shift into green hotelTo disc everywhere the comely ways that choose the regular hotel become green hotelTo perceive the future of the hotel by and by become greenProblem StatementRecently more than people be embracing a green lifestyle. Since live bu ildings contribute al nearly 80% of the carbon emissions in some cities with their push character, a study focus of these efforts has been on sustainable spin. Hotels usance a tremendous measurement of vim and water supply as well as collect a huge amount of drive away. By doing their part to preserve, recycle, and trim tolerate, they are defend the planet as well as providing a great place for eco- companionate clients to stay. The consumption of this research is to pick up the current state of green hotel industry. Further this study to a fault makes the cordial reception industry taking an chess opening or implement for the sake of the environment. The industry is aware of these concerns, and has been investigating environmentally-friendly alternatives that would still prove consistent with knob concerns for at least the last 15 years.Theoretical FrameworkGreen hotel is created to decrease the amount of neutralise entering landfills and development the amoun t of waste that crapper be recycled. Hospitality industry moldiness neuter their strategy into green movement excessively they have to searching practical environmental that lead to a remediate world. The hotel industry could benefit economically from the green movement, first base by attracting lymph nodes who wish to adopt a greener lifestyle, as well as prudence money through comprise-saving force practices and equipment adjustments. world green sum Green hotels are adopting environmentally friendly practices and platforms that leave reduce zilch forethought (Amy 2009), water saving (JeongDoo), and waste caution (Evans, 2008).H4H5H3H2H1Figure 1 Conceptual framework of the main practices of universe a green hotelHypothesis1)2)3)4)5)IntroductionGreen Hotels are environmentally-friendly properties whose managers are eager to institute programs that merely water, save nix and reduce solid waste while saving money to help protect our one and still earth. Recently more hotels are embracing a green lifestyle. Being green subject matter guests, provide and management are better. Since existing buildings contribute almost 80% of the carbon emissions in some cities through their energy use, a major focus of these efforts has been on sustainable social organization. many a(prenominal) hotels are responding to consumer demands for a healthier and greener lifestyle by making their business more environmentally friendly. Not only consumer demand, financial incentives also identical to encourage the hospitality industry to continue exploitation more environmentally friendly hotel.Being green sloppeds hotel are adopting environmentally friendly practices and programs that will reduce energy, water and waste (Amy, 2009). Green efforts merchantman be as basic as water saving measures (such as encouraging the re-use of guest linens), housekeepers employing environmentally safe cleaning products or Eco-sensitive spa and bath amenities to grande r initiatives such as all-green construction (Kathy, 2007). Among the more pronounced Eco efforts are recently built hotels that weave the use of ecologically sound construction materials and ideas into their precise conception.Expect further greening of hotels as consumer demand increases. check to a survey conducted by the Travel Industry Association and Partnership, most adults say they would be more likely to select an hotel that uses more environmentally friendly products and processes, because environmentally friendly product make them become more healthier.Besides providing a positive effect, green hotel also give some problems. Hotel must pay more to get friendly product, also they have to looking for a spic-and-span place to develop their green hotel. It centre that they must cutting down a forest to build their green hotel. And that makes our environment become more diminish. literary productions ReviewThe Origin of Green PracticesThe hotel industry, like many separat e did non entertain the concept of saving energy for many years, as oil harms were at an all beat low in the mid-eighties and the early part 1990s (Hirschland, Oppenheim and Webb, 2008). The chemical and oil industries were the first to come under investigation by environmentalist due to the visible nature of their environmental impact. The hospitality an industry took a massive time to come under scrutiny and as a result was slow to take responsibility in reducing the impact of their business were having on the environment. The concept of green or friendly hotel has become a very serious and profound topic within the hospitality arena in the past decade. bowman (1975, p.74) states that a series of widely publicized environmental catastrophes signaled the globalization of environmental concern and that society has entered the last stage of a process that has taken humans from fearing, to understanding, to using, to abusing, and now to worrying about the physical and biological world around themHospitality providers are now been forced to take responsibility for the impact their service are having on the environment. In 1996, Agenda 21 for the travel and tourism industry do hospitality providers aware of the need to enhance sustainability development. There is evidence in forthwiths literature to suggest the writ of execution of environmental practices is widespread across the hospitality industry as the benefit are infinite, the most important macrocosm financial sustainability. Pizman (2009) believes that many hospitality organizations are non interested in environmental sustainability for altruistic or ethical reasons, but are purely investing in environmental practices for selfish profitable reasons.Houdre (2006), brownish (2006) and Stark (2009) have made it clear that the prime reason for implementing environmental practices is geared towards profitability. Cotton (2007) believes that the purpose of running any business is to make a profit and so it is alarming the itemize of hospitality organizations that are non adopting green practices in order to drive long term profitability. This suggests that there are barriers and obstacles with regard to the implementation of environmental practices in the hospitality industry.Green Hotels in MalaysiaOver the past decade many organization, both in the private and the public sectors have recognized the value of a doctrinal memory access to the management of their organization (Abdallah, 2007). Superficially, it might be argued that environmental management is not important issue in the Malaysian hotel industry. Comparing with the new(prenominal) environmentally developed hotel industry from other countries, Malaysia hotel industry appears absentminded in the cognizance for environmentally policy (Azusa, 2009).There is a realization among many hotels that environmental management does not solely mean preventing their surroundings from being polluted. Daily functional activ ities and consideration, which range from the use of recycled written document to minimizing the use of heavy chemicals also provide a momentous woo saving measure for hotels (Hong and Parker, 2004). Therefore, it is not true to state that investment in environmental management practices will result in the escalation of in operation(p) embodys and erosion of profit margins (Foster, Sampson and Dunn, 2000)According to the five hotels in Malaysia have been chosen as the new recipients of the ASEAN Green Hotel present 2010, bringing the total number of such hotel in the country to 10.the five hotels are The Andaman Langkawi in Sedah, Shangri-LAs Tanjung Aru Resort Spa in Kota Kinabalu. Mines Wellnes Hotel in Selangor, Shangri-Las Rasa Ria Resort in Tuaran and Renaissance Kuala Lumpur Hotel. The ASEAN Green Hotel Award 2008 recipients which managed to retain their status were Hotel Melia Kuala Lumpur, Nexus Resort Karambunai in Sabah, Shangri-Las Rasa Sayang Resort Sp a in Penang, Shangri-las Hotel Kuala Lumpur and The frangipanni Langkawi Resort Spa. The ASEAN Green Hotel Standard is an essential tool to support ASEAN as a world association quality destination.Zero Waste Approach Going Beyond Best PracticesThis report discusses several topics that garnish ways hotel are becoming greener. Although implementing the best practices saves money, this report shows how to go beyond best practices. The goal being a friendly hotel is to eliminate as much as possible the negative impacts on the environment both by reducing consumption of resources and by changing the practices so that the waste hotel produce heap be used as new(a) material. Achieving zero waste may or may not possible in the foreseeable future. What matters is working towards zero waste by continuing to implement programs as new opportunities to use previously wasted materials become available. Nowadays a few leading hotels are striving to become zero waste brands, which does not ne cessarily mean the elimination of all by-product. It means using resources efficiently, using renewable resources and when generation of by-products is unavoidable, using those by-product as huffy material for other processes. Besides implementing zero waste, energy conservation and water conservation also important to practices the green hotel.The cost savings and environmental benefits of the zero waste initiative more important and it takes to launch such a program. The process of r from each oneing zero waste takes several months to bring to pass with most organizations seeing viable results after the first year (Thayne, 2010). The zero waste process must involve every genus Phallus of the hotel, with a core team or steering committee overseeing the initiative. To achieve zero waste hotels must unwrap how much waste exists in the organization past to the initiative and work together with the each member of the department to determine the amount of waste created in each cate gory.A few leading hotels today are determined to become zero waste brand, which does not necessarily mean the elimination of all by products. It means that using resources efficiently, using renewable resources and when generation of by product is unavoidable, using those by products as raw material for other processes (Abhinav and Rajeshwari, 2001).Environmental focal point Practices (EMP)Over the past decade many organization, both in the private and the public sectors, have recognized the value of a systematic approach to the management of their organizations. Apparently, it might be argued that environmental management is not an important issue in the Malaysian hotel industry. After all, certain groups might argue that it is impossible for the hotels to be environmentally aware due to gamy investment cost involved. However, upon deeper examination of the subject might reveal that hotels in Malaysia pilenot avoid confronting this issue for long if they are to remain warlike (Ahmad, 2007). There is a realization among many hotels that environmental management does not only mean preventing their surroundings from being polluted. Daily operational activities and consideration, which range from the use of recycled papers to minimizing the use of heavy chemicals also provide a signifi messt cost saving measure for hotel (Hong Parker, 2004).Environmental management is a management framework for reducing environmental impacts and improving hotel performance overtime. In other words, environmental management provide hotel of all types with a structures approach for managing environmental and regulatory responsibilities to improve overall environmental performance (Vandermerwe Oliff, 1990). Environmental management practice initiatives consist of several practices such as having an environmental policy, readying and rewarding workers to find opportunities to prevent pollution, setting corporation wide internal standards, undertaking internal environmental au dits and adopting the philosophy of total quality management in environmental management (Khanna Anton, 2002). In general, environmental management practice would include the extent to which a company has defined its environmental policy, developed procedures to establish environmental objectives, to select and implemented environmental practices assessed the outcomes of such practices and has allocated environmental responsibilities (Klassen Whybark, 1996).Such an pressure in the hotel industry would mean that environmental management should be studied from all technical and organizational angles so as to reduce the environmental impact caused by a hotel business operations. The benefit of adopting Environmental Management Practices is multifarious. For instance, of the streamlining of a hotels operational activities to be consonant with environmental needs will accrue savings (Rondinelli Vastag, 1995) through the prevention of environmental degradation in turn leading to reduce d cost of production and higher profit (Pava Krausz, 1997 Russo, Fouts Paul, 1997 Waddoek Graves, 1997). Ultimately, the implementation of Environmental Management Practices may provide hotels with unique environmental resources operation, capabilities and benefits that may confer a competitive advantage to practitioners (Hart, 1995 Klassen Whybark, 1999). Such benefit may obtain from image benefit, embracing of eco-tourism and cost saving (Aalders, 2002 Holland Foo, 2003 Kollman, 2001 Prakash, 2002). vital force EfficiencyHotels are the largest consumers of energy not only in building construction but also as establishment with complex triggers, which provide guests with high level of multi-faceted comfort and exclusive amenities, treatment and facilities. Many of the services provided to hotel guests are highly resource intensive whether it concerns energy, water or raw materials. A signifi stomacht amount of the energy used is wasted leaving sample for intelligent measures of energy efficiency and conservation (Joseph, 2009). Since the installation of energy, water and raw material saving techniques in hotels freighter achieve environmental progress and offer competitive advantages to hotels in outperforming their counterparts, many new energy saving facilities have been introduced by the hotel sector in the past few years following technological advances (Willy, 2009).The increase in energy price means that energy conservation efforts should be taken to reduce the effect of energy cost (Weng Wai, Buang and Abdul Hakim, p.58, 2006). As stated by Yukata Mizuta (2003), energy conservation may not only bring reducings in carbon dioxide emission, but may also lead to saving in the expenditure on energy. On a worldwide basis, the energy used in the hotels is predominantly fossil fuel based or comes from atomic reactors (Philip, 2009). A truly sustainable hotel must not only consider ways to use energy wisely but should also consider the possibilities of enhancing the use of energy from renewable resources. About 40% of the energy used in a hotel is electricity, 60% comes from natural gas and oils fuels (Niki, 2008). These energy bearers are brought in by the hotel. The energy is converted by a number of conversion into the most important internal flows of energy namely heat, cold and blanken. Heat is used in the form of hot water hot water is used in the form of hot tap water. Cold is used mainly for cooling and drying the ventilation air, mostly cold is produced in the form of ice water.Figure 1. Energy consumption that use in the hotelLighting is one of the largest electrical energy consumers in the hotels, as in many other kinds of avail buildings. Figure 1 shows that some 35% of the total energy consumption in hotel goes to lighting. Lighting installation must provide adequate levels of lighting for each activity. Bright and comfort level are also important for lighting inside the hotels, depending on the eye socket where l ighting are required. Lighting levels necessary for each zone are established in the lighting regulations of each particular country. These levels should be reached by the most suitable lamps for each application. When it comes to the energy savings that mickle be made on lighting, there are two main ways.Efficient lightingRequired lighting is supplied by light resources, which are made up of lamp and luminaries.The choice of light source depends on various criteria, e.g. efficiency color temperature, color archetype index, lamp life, emission modeetc. Lighting in the different parts of the hotels have different requirement, but it is very important that the most efficient lamp is chosen for each application.Smart switchingAnother savings advise be achieved with smart switching of lighting. Lighting is frequently switched on unnecessarily when there is sufficient daylight or there is nobody in the agency.With manual operated system curiously, light tend to be left hand(a) b urning needlessly.Water ConservationWater conservation encourage hotel to manage how and when water is being used, bobby pin both the technical and human side of water management issues. It is estimated that by 2010, water use increase to approximately 475 gallons per day for each hotel room (Sarah, 2002).however in other accommodations, water uses still a cost and an important stress on the local environment. In many cases water conservation can be a matter of purchasing and using the proper systems. Factors that consider water sources may include renewability, electromotive force impact on the environment and water supplies as well as economic benefit. Some of developing countries, hotel water use may impact the water supplies of the local people. Any water use reduction program must have full support of the each member of the hotel. Some hotel estimated that only small percentage of water consumed by the guest, the remainder is used by the chambermaids during cleaning. Water is crucial resources for the hospitality industry as it limited resource and needed for number activities as illustrated in figure 2.Figure 2. Hotel water system and useIdentifying where water use is extreme important to hotel in developing areas. With increasing awareness of cost saving opportunities through water conservation, various related programs have been developed and implemented among hotel companies. According to Marriott International (2007) linen reuse program, encouraging guests to reuse lines and towels during they stay contributes to saving 11 to 17% on hot water. Previous literature also reported that linen and towel reuse programs are well-established practices in hotel in most countries, with more than two-thirds of the respondents in studies conducted in different countries using such program (Bohdanowicz, 2006 Erdogan and Baris 2007 Mensah, 2006). This program saves not only hot water and energy, but also reduces the use of detergents and thereby reduces wastewate r.Waste ManagementHospitality industry can become important factor in the minimization of waste that is presently disposed of at landfill sites. Waste management has been designed and implemented to reduce the volume and toxicity of food waste (Iwanowski and Rushmore, 1994). Erdogan and Barish (2007) conducted a study to examine environmental practices and found that paper and food waste are the superior amount of waste generated sources of hotels. Previous research indicates that the level of hotels commitment to waste sorting and recycling varies, depending on regulatory pressures and local governments support.Waste minimization and management involves reduce, reuse and recycling. These efforts combine to minimize the amount of waste disposed and the cost of disposal and help to suss out that final disposal is done in an authorise and sustainable manner. Minimizing waste generation begins in purchasing function. Purchasing in bulk, using product make from recycled materials , controlling the usage of product to avoid waste and working with supplier to minimize product forwarding are all proven ways to minimize waste generation (David, 2002)Reuse as a means of waste reduction has been practiced in the hospitality industry for many years deglutition container such as those holding syrup concentrate and beer kegs are typical. Reuse does not have to relegate on the property itself used linens can be donated to shelters or other charitable organizations for reuse (Willy, 2009). Reusing materials is better choice than recycling, burning or landfill. Reusing different from recycling, recycling breaks down an item into the basic parts and makes a new product out of it, but reusing an items keeps the material in its skipper form and uses the item over and over again for the same or different purpose.Recycling as a means of conservation can be turned into revenue steam. The price paid for recycled materials varies geographically and over time (Philip, 2009). A recycled product describes a product that is made entirely or partly from secondary material vulcanized from consumer waste. Some product are reduced to their raw state and remanufactured into something resembling their original state. In the case of recycled paper, the publisher gathered from guest bedrooms and the used notepaper coming from the hotel copy shop are reduced back to their raw state of paper pulp which is then used to produce more paper. Unfortunately, many products recycled in this manner come back as lesser quality product (David, 2002).Reduce as a means lessening the amount items or resources that are consumed using the amount that is needed. The recitation of the reduce task that hotel can do is reduce the amount and toxicity of trash that hotel discard, possibilities include purchasing durable, long lasting goods, desire product and packaging that are as toxin free as possible and redesigning products to use fewer raw materials in production, last longer o r can be used again after their original purpose.Hotel activities should be able to be safely assimilated into natural system, thus highlighting the need of solid and politic management techniquesFigure 3. Wastage that generated by hotelSolid waste in hotels has many components, including paper, food, various metals, plastics, aluminum and glass. This gives a picture of the variety of waste that can be produces by only a small number of hotels in a city. When looked at with a zero-waste attitude, these figures show the opportunities for both resource recovery and waste reduction. Implementing a solid waste reduction program in a hotel can create significant cost savings in waste hauling fees while creating a more environmentally friendly hotel (Sarah, 2002). This is especially true as solid waste becomes a more significant environmental issue and landfill fees increase. oft hotels hesitate to establish program in solid management because of the coordination and cooperation needed a mong management, employees and guests. However the cost benefit is an incentive.Implementing Green InitiativesWhile many companies and individuals talk about ways they can help the environment, it is still only a few that are actually creating a plan of action. Meeting Professionals International or MPI took its first step in 2006 at the Professional Education Conference, a radiation diagram of meeting planners from around the world. MPI worked with the convention center to recycle products from the meeting by donating leftover food bank, donating signs to local schools for art projects and using green catering for conference events (Gardner, 2006). These are simple ways to add a green initiative to the hotel and combine a no waste practice at little cost.One way meeting planners can learn what a hotel provides in term of green practice is by placing green require into the request for proposal. Some planners are asking for recycling programs to be in place. Planners are also requ esting that hotels have complete green programs in place or their hotel will not be chosen for an event (Gardner, 2006) spreading DepartmentAccording to Nancy Wilson of Meeting Strategies Worldwide, these are some steps that can be taken to green the hotelUse e-mail instead of paper mailUse an online registration systemForgo handing out conference bags unless they are made of recycled materialsA really interesting thought is to choose hotels either near the airport or close to all activities relating to the meeting (Gardner, 2006). This will limit carbon dioxide emissions by check the need for vehicular transportation from one location to the next.As for food service, the banquet department should modify how food and coffee tree breaks are presented to the guest. Instead of individually wrapped sweets, honey, jams and creams, the hotel needs to switch to bulk containers that can be reused many times, creating less trash (McPhee, 2006). In addition, instead of throwaway utensils, silverware should be supplied to stir coffee and tea. Refillable water jugs that can be set up sporadically throughout the meeting space with real glasses available should be used in place of bottled water.Changing the lighting to energy efficient bulbs in the meeting space, fitness center and employee only areas of the hotel will be high priority. Groups have peculiar(prenominal) lighting needs for the meeting space, but the fitness center and back of house do not need to have many different types of lighting. Fortunately, there are many new efficient bulbs that can now be dimmed and adjusted to the groups needs in the event space (Fedrizzi and Rogers, 2002).The more impetuous project will be installing motion sensors throughout the meeting space and back of house. These areas are used for a large amount of time each day, but there are times when no one would be in the areas at all. If the sensors could turn the light on and off when soul walks in or out of a room by detecting body heat, then the energy would be reduce in comparison to when the lights are left on continuously (Serlen, 2008).Guest fashionThe guest room is a difficult location to implement changes, as it requires the guest to believe what the hotel would like to change. If the guest wants new sheets each day, then the hotel most likely will oblige the guest to make them happy. That being said, many initiatives can be taken to make it easy for the guest to participate in the new policies.Another aspect is how to save energy in empty guest rooms. According to Jeff Sobieski (2008), hotel guestrooms are unoccupied approximately 60% of the time. This mean that for 60% of the time, the hotel can be in control of the temperature and lighting of a guestroom and manage how much energy is being used during that time without interfering with the guests comfort.The following are two examples of energy saving scenarios that can take place in guest rooms. The first is to change light bulbs to energy eff icient light bulbs that will last long and use less power. The other change is the turn off program. This program will have the Thermostat linked to the hotel database so the temperature can change when the guest check in and out. This system can also reset itself anytime the guest leaves the room (Freed, 2008). Also, if the room has a balcony, anytime the balcony door opens, the temperature will reset itself.Ran in conjunction with the second scenario, the turn off program, hotels can use in-room occupancy detectors. These detectors use body heat sensors to scan the room to check is a guest has entered or exited the room. Once it detects that someone is in the room, the system will return the temperature of the room back to the guests preference. The sensors can also be used as a way to keep the lights from being left on all day and night. If there is no movement in a present amount of time, the sensors can report database that it is OK to turn off the lights. While this will save energy, some guest prefers to walk into a room with light. This can be fixed by having a hall light turn on when the front door opens so the guest is not entering a down in the mouth room. This can be managed by a sensor or by a connection in the midst of the door and the light (Hanna, 2008).RestaurantThe areas of restaurant and kitchens that are not seen by guests can save energy through a study of how the appliances are used and comparing that to how they are supposed to be used. The main way to save energy in the kitchens is to teach the staff the proper way to use the equipment (Jones, 2002). For example teach the staff to close the refrigerator door when not in use. In addition, keeping the equipment cleaned and retained will make sure that the equipment is running at its best level this will help ensure the lowest amount of energy would be used (Lawn, 2008)The idea of replacing the appliances in the laundry area also can be applied to hotel kitchens. For example, a new ener gy star steam cooker can be 60% more efficient than the regular models available (Brodsky, 2005). This type of savings can be applied to all the appliances.Housekeeping or LaundryThe energy saving in the laundry area will require some installing of new appliances and systems. While there will be an initial cost associated with the new appliances, it will save energy in the long run. The first change will be to install new gas dryers that can dry fabric more quickly and use less energy. The other new system is a heat recovery unit that can save the heat from the old water cycle in the laundry and transfer the heat to the clean water being used in the next cycle (Fedrizzi and Rogers, 2002). Both of these options are creating new ways to conserve energy, but not changing the actual process of doing laundry.The hotels housekeeping staff would be responsible for reflexion for leaks throughout all guest rooms and hotel space. According to Ashwin Patel (2008), a single leak can waste 10,0 00 liters annually all sinks, showers and toilets need to be checked for leaks. These are initial step and easy fixes that can be taken while waiting for larger initiatives to take place.Expectation from Green HotelFor many

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